According to World Health Organization, If a couple is not able to conceive after regular unprotected sexual intercourse of 12 months or more, then the couple is referred as infertile couple. This disease effects one of the most important functions of our body.
Getting pregnant is a complicated process that depends on many factors :-
1) Production of healthy and good quality of semen by the man and healthy eggs by the woman
2)The fallopian tube should be open that allow the sperm to reach the egg
3)The sperms should have ability to fertilize the egg when they meet. The ability of the fertilized egg (embryo) to become implanted in the woman’s uterus and good embryo quality.
4) The embryo must be healthy enough so that pregnancy can be continued. Problem in any factor can cause Infertility
Duration time of failed attempt to get pregnant must be 12 or more months before any investigation is done. In most infertility cases, about 85 to 90 percent are treated with conventional therapies, such as drug treatment or surgical repair of reproductive organs. Infertility is usually evaluated when individuals or couples have been attempting to conceive for one year without any success. There are many treatment options for both men and women. While sophisticated new technologies can help almost everyone who wants to have a baby, many people suffering from infertility can be helped factors is impaired, infertility can result.
Common causes of Infertility:-
3) Hormone imbalance
6) Older age
7) Birth defects
9) Sexually transmitted diseases
11) Thyroid disease
12) Auto immune disorder
The cause of Male Infertility:
1) Oligospermia– Sperm concentration less than 20 million per ml considered as oligospermia.
2) Azoospermia – It is a medical condition of man whose semen contains no sperm.
3) Low sperm motility
4) Abnormal sperm
5) Exposure to heat for a long time
6) Retrograde ejaculation – It occurs when semen ejaculated via urethra is redirected to the urinary bladder.
7) Vasectomy – It is a surgical procedure for male permanent contraception. Vast deferens are tied, so sperm cannot enter into urethra.
Causes of Female Infertility:
1) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)- Small cysts are developed in ovaries called polycystic ovaries.
2) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)- It is infection in female reproductive system.
3) Fibroid- They are most frequently seen tumors of female reproductive system.
4) Endometriosis- It is condition in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus gets grown outside the uterus.
5) Tubectomy- It is surgical procedure for female permanent contraception. In this procedure fallopian tube cut or tied. So ovum cannot enter into uterus.